of cancer cases in low- and lower-middle-income countries due to cancer-causing infections

10 000 000

deaths in 2020 with cancer being the leading cause of death worldwide


of cancers can be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing prevention strategies

About Different Cancer Types


Our bodies divide and replace healthy cells in a regulated manner throughout our lifetimes. When a cell is changed in any way, it multiplies uncontrollably, which is when cancer begins. A tumour is a mass made up of a collection of aberrant cells. Tumours are formed by the majority of malignancies, however, not all tumours are malignant.


Tumours that are benign, or noncancerous, do not spread to other regions of the body or cause new ones. Tumours, whether malignant or cancerous, push out healthy cells, disrupt biological functioning, and drain resources from body tissues.

Carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukaemia are the most common cancers. Carcinomas arise in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, and other organs and glands, and are the most often diagnosed malignancies. Lymphomas are lymphocyte malignancies. Leukaemia is a kind of blood cancer. It normally does not develop solid tumours. Sarcomas develop in the body’s bone, muscle, fat, blood vessels, cartilage, and other soft and connective tissues. They are not very prevalent. Melanomas are skin tumours that develop in the cells that produce pigment.


Types of Cancer 

People who have been diagnosed with cancer are now living longer than ever before. Some kinds of the condition, however, are still frustratingly tough to cure. Modern therapy has the potential to improve the quality of life while also increasing the chances of survival.



Sarcomas are tumours that form in connective tissue like bone, cartilage, or muscle. Malignant sarcoma is quite uncommon (1% of all adult malignancies and about 15% of childhood malignancies). Sarcomas come in a variety of forms, but the two most common are soft tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma, often known as osteosarcoma.


Symptoms of sarcoma

Sarcomas have a wide range of symptoms. Some sarcomas, for example, may not present any symptoms in their early stages. Sarcomas can manifest themselves as painless bumps beneath the skin. Other sarcomas develop in the abdomen and may not cause symptoms until they have grown to a big size and are pressing on an organ.


Factors that can increase the risk of sarcoma include:


  • Inherited syndromes.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Chronic swelling (lymphedema).
  • Exposure to chemicals.
  • Exposure to viruses.



The most common type of cancer is carcinoma. It starts in the skin’s epithelial tissue or the tissue that lines internal organs like the liver and kidneys. Carcinomas can either spread to other places of the body or stay in one place. Carcinoma comes in a variety of forms. They all affect different sections of the body and have varying degrees of severity. Adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma are examples of carcinomas.


Symptoms of carcinoma 

Carcinomas begin in the epithelial tissues that cover organs and line numerous bodily compartments. They are in charge of filtering, absorbing, and secreting fluids, as well as safeguarding the organs.

Here are some of the most common symptoms include:

  • scaly and dark skin patches.
  • open sores with raised borders.
  • firm growths.
  • spots that resemble age spots.
  • wart-like growths.
  • horn-like growths.
  • sores growing in scars.


Lymphoma is cancer that begins in cells of the immune system, which is a component of the body’s immune network. Lymph nodes (lymph glands), spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow are all part of the lymphatic system. All of these locations, as well as other organs throughout the body, can be affected by lymphoma. Lymphoma comes in a variety of forms. Hodgkin’s lymphoma (previously known as Hodgkin’s disease) and Non-lymphoma Hodgkin’s are the two primary subtypes.


Symptoms of Lymphoma

The body’s disease-fighting system is the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow are all part of it. Chemotherapy, medication, radiation therapy, and, in rare cases, stem-cell transplantation are all options for treatment.


Signs and symptoms of lymphoma include:


  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or crotch
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Itchy skin



Leukaemia is a blood and bone marrow malignancy. Cancer is described as the uncontrolled proliferation of aberrant cells in simple terms. Cancer can strike at any time and in any part of the body. This fast, out-of-control development of aberrant cells occurs in the bone marrow in leukaemia. These aberrant cells subsequently leak into the circulatory system. Leukaemia, unlike other malignancies, seldom forms a lump (tumour) that can be detected on imaging tests like X-rays.


Myelogenous leukaemia and lymphocytic leukaemia are two kinds of leukaemia. Some forms of leukaemia affect children more than others, while some affect adults more than children.


Symptoms of Leukaemia

Leukaemia develops when the DNA of a single bone marrow cell mutates, preventing it from developing and functioning normally. The type of leukaemia you have, your age and overall health, and whether or not the leukaemia has spread to other organs or tissues all influence your treatment options.


Your symptoms depend, in part, on what type of leukaemia you have. However, common signs and symptoms include:


  • Tired quickly, low energy, and sluggishness.
  • Pale skin tone.
  • Fever.
  • Bruising easily and bleeding. Nosebleeds and bleeding gums. Tiny red spots on the skin. Purplish patches in the skin.
  • Bone or joint pain and/or tenderness.
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, groin or stomach; enlarged spleen or liver.
  • Frequent infections.
  • Unplanned weight loss.
  • Night sweats.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Pain or full feeling under the ribs on the left side.


Remember that if you have a chronic form of leukaemia, you may not have any symptoms in the early stages of the disease.



Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer, with the greatest mortality rate. While it is a dangerous skin cancer, if found early enough, it is largely treatable. If you have a light complexion, blonde or red hair, and blue eyes, prevention and early treatment are essential. Examine both sun-exposed and sun-protected portions of the body for anything new, different, or unexpected. Melanomas frequently grow on women’s legs, whereas men’s trunks are the most prevalent site of development. However, melanomas can appear anywhere on the skin, even in locations where the sun does not shine.


Symptoms of Melanoma

Melanomas can appear anywhere on the body. The most commonly appear on regions of the body that have been exposed to the sun, such as the back, legs, arms, and face.


The first melanoma signs and symptoms often are:


  • A change in an existing mole
  • Your skin developing a new pigmented or unusual-looking growth


Melanoma isn’t necessarily the result of a mole. It can also emerge on skin that seems to be normal.


Unusual moles that may indicate melanoma

To help you identify characteristics of unusual moles that may indicate melanomas or other skin cancers, think of the letters ABCDE:


  • The letter A stands for asymmetrical form. Seem for moles with unusual forms, such as two sides that look completely different.
  • The letter B stands for “irregular border.” Look for uneven, notched, or scalloped borders on moles, which are signs of melanomas.
  • Changes in colour are represented by the letter C. Look for growths with a variety of hues or an uneven colour distribution.
  • The letter D stands for diameter. In a mole larger than 1/4 inch, look for fresh development (about 6 millimetres).
  • E stands for evolution. Examine for changes over time, such as a growing mole or one that has changed colour or form. Moles might sometimes acquire new signs and symptoms over time, such as itching or bleeding.

The appearance of cancerous (malignant) moles varies widely. Some people will have all of the alterations indicated above, while others will just have one or two.


These factors increase your melanoma risk:


  • UV radiation from the sun or indoor tanning that is unprotected or severe.
  • Due to a medical condition or drugs, the immune system is weakened.
  • The more moles you have on your body, the higher your chance of developing melanoma. Melanoma risk is further increased by having big moles (greater than the tip of a pencil eraser) or any unusual moles.
  • Melanoma is more common in those who have pale skin, bright eyes, and light or red hair.
  • People who have had melanoma or nonmelanoma skin malignancies in the past have a higher chance of acquiring melanoma in the future.
  • Melanoma may run in families; one out of every ten patients has a family member who has also been diagnosed with the illness.

Prevention and Screening 

How can you prevent cancer?

Tips for cancer prevention include:


  • Avoid smoking.
  • Avoid too much sun exposure and wear sunscreen.
  • Eat a nutritious diet.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Cancer screening for your age, gender, and risk factors.
  • When working with carcinogens and industrial chemicals, take appropriate measures such as wearing gloves and ensuring enough ventilation.
  • Keep an eye on your alcohol intake.
  • Healthy balanced diet.
  • Defend yourself against sexually transmitted illnesses. Vaccinate both girls and boys for HPV.



Your doctor may recommend a cancer screening to search for early symptoms of cancer or things that might lead to it. A screening is a test that can detect an illness before symptoms appear.


Here are some examples of cancer screening tests:


  • Blood Pressure Test.
  • Blood Glucose Testing.
  • Cervical Cancer – Pap smear.
  • Breast Cancer – Clinical Breast Examination.
  • Prostate Cancer – Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing.
  • Skin Cancer Screening – Clinical Mole Analysis and Fotofinder Mole Analysis.
  • Faecal Occult Blood Test – Colorectal Cancer Screening.


Cancer screening tests are designed to detect cancer early before it produces symptoms and when it is more manageable to cure. It’s crucial to keep in mind that just because your doctor advises a screening test doesn’t indicate he or she believes you have cancer. When there are no signs or symptoms of cancer, screening tests are performed.

Tips to reduce your cancer risk


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